The history, principles and perspectives of nature farming, as advocated by Mokichi Okada, a Japanese philosopher in 1935, are described. According to Okada, the principles of nature farming must fulfill five requirements: (1) produce safe and nutritious food that ensures good health; (2) be economically and spiritually beneficial to both producers and consumers; (3) be sustainable and easily practiced; (4) conserve and protect the environment; and (5) produce sufficient food of high quality for an expanding world population. In practice, both synthetic chemicals and raw waste from animals without treatment are prohibited as fertilizers or soil amendments for crop production. Composts from plant materials are recommended. This is the main difference with the principles of organic farming, which allows the use of animal manure, untreated or composted. Although there are strong requirements for nature farming principles, it is one of the most idealistic and practicable farming methods to ensure human health and environmental protection.